How to cite

The method of referencing citations can be directly in the text (via a citation identifier) or in footnotes. 

The citation may be either verbatim or paraphrased. A literal quotation is a verbatim transcription of another author's text, enclosed on both sides by quotation marks. A quotation can be a piece of text, a figure, a table or other information taken from another's work or describing part of another's work. A paraphrased quotation, called a paraphrase, expresses a free elaboration of another author's ideas or conclusions from a primary source. A paraphrase is not enclosed in quotation marks. 

Citation of information sources must be consistent and unambiguous throughout the thesis. Citations should come from the original source. If a quotation is used from another source ("second-hand quotation") because, for example, the original source is difficult to access, it is appropriate to include this quotation. References to secondary sources should be eliminated as much as possible, but it is better to use a secondary source than to face the suspicion of plagiarism. 

In the list of references used, we list only those sources that we have used in the thesis, or those sources that we cite in the thesis. The total number of sources in the list of sources used is not mandatorily prescribed. It is related to the field of study, the topic of the thesis or the existence of sources on the topic. 

Citation managers allow you to create and manage bibliographic records according to the citation style you choose. These tools work through computer programs and web services. There are several citation managers, both commercial and freely available. Examples of commercial citation managers include EndNote, RefWorks, and CitacePro. Examples of freely available ones are Zotero or Mendeley. Another option is web services, e.g. also provides a PDF document with detailed information on the issue of bibliographic citations according to ISO 690, which are commonly used in theses. 

The CitacePro citation manager is also implemented in the CUNI Central Catalogue (just search for the relevant document and then click on the "CitacePro" icon and the citation will be displayed directly on the screen) or in the Union Catalogue of the Czech Republic. 

Referencing in the text

References in the text are used to identify the source and the place from where the information was taken. Different methods of referencing are used within different fields. However, it is always necessary to use a consistent style of referencing throughout the work. 

Numerical referencing method

Documents cited are numbered continuously. A document that is referred to more than once in the thesis is referred to by the same number. 

Reference numbers are given in round or square brackets or superscript. The page number of the referenced page may also be included after the comma. 

Name-date method (Harvard system) 

The reference is made by giving the first entry (usually the author or name of the organisation, for works without an author the first words of the title are given) and the year of publication. These entries are placed in round or square brackets. Here, too, the page to which the original document is referred can be written after the comma. If the author's name appears in the text, then only the year of publication (or page number) is given in brackets. 

In the list of references used, citations are arranged alphabetically according to the authors' surnames (or the names of corporations and the first words of the title). Where multiple works by the same author are referred to, the citations are ordered by year of publication (from oldest to most recent). If an author publishes more than one work in the same year, they are arranged according to the letters of the lowercase alphabet (e.g. Veselý 2004a, Veselý 2004b) assigned to them. Works by one author are ranked ahead of works produced in collaboration with other authors. 

The method of continuous footnotes 

Numbered references to citations that are footnoted on the same page. If we refer to a document more than once in our work, it will be given a new serial number each time. This method of citation is mainly used in the humanities. 

A few notes on referencing: 

Examples of citations: 

Monothematic publications (e.g. books, textbooks, scripts):

VESELÝ, Jiří. Basics of mathematical analysis. Second edition. Second edition: Matfyzpress, 2019. ISBN 978-80-7378-389-1. 

Contribution to a monothematic publication (e.g. a chapter in a book, a contribution in a proceedings):

PECINA, Pavel, Petra HOFFMANNOVÁ, Ying ZHANG, et al. Overview of the CLEF-2007 Cross-Language Speech Retrieval Track. In: Advances in Multilingual and Multimodal Information Retrieval: 8th Workshop of the Cross-Language Evaluation Forum, CLEF 2007, Budapest, Hungary, September 19-21, 2007, Revised Selected Papers. Berlin: Springer, 2007. pp. 674-686. ISBN 3-540-85759-1. 

Serial publications (e.g., journal article):

MLYNÁŘ, Jakub, ŠUBRT, Jiří, VINOPAL, Jiří et al: Historical Consciousness of the Czech Population from the Perspective of Sociological Research. Historicka sociologie, 2014, 13(2), pp. 139-143  

Electronic resources (e.g. an article in a periodical, a paper in an online proceedings, one page of a web portal):

PAULÍČEK, Miroslav and MLYNÁŘ, Jakub. The actual problem of sociological theory lies in practice. Interview with Professor Ilya Šrubař. Socialni studia [online]. 2017, 13(3) [cited 2020-03-27]. ISSN 1214813X. 

PECINA, Pavel, HOFFMANNOVÁ, Petra, ZHANG, Ying, et al. Overview of the CLEF-2007 Cross-Language Speech Retrieval Track. Advances in Multilingual and Multimodal Information Retrieval: 8th Workshop of the Cross-Language Evaluation Forum, CLEF 2007, Budapest, Hungary, September 19-21, 2007, Revised Selected Papers [online]. , 674-686 [cited 2020-03-27]. DOI: 10.1007/978-3-540-85760-0_86. ISBN 3540857591. 

Matematicka beruska [online]. ©2017 [cited 2020-03-26]. Available from: 

For more information on citations according to ISO 690:2011, see here.